Risperidone Orally Disintegrating

Name: Risperidone Orally Disintegrating

Use in specific populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Risk Summary

Adequate and well controlled studies with risperidone have not been conducted in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including risperidone) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There was no increase in the incidence of malformations in embryo-fetal studies in rats and rabbits at 0.4 to 6 times MRHD. Increased pup mortality was noted at all doses in peri-postnatal studies in rats. Risperidone should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Monitor neonates exhibiting extrapyramidal or withdrawal symptoms. Some neonates recover within hours or days without specific treatment, others may require prolonged hospitalization.

Data

Human Data

There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder in neonates following in utero exposure to antipsychotics in the third trimester. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.

There was one report of a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum in an infant exposed to risperidone in utero. The causal relationship to risperidone therapy is unknown.

Animal Data

The teratogenic potential of risperidone was studied in three Segment II studies in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats (0.63 to 10mg/kg or 0.4 to 6 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 body surface area basis) and in one Segment II study in New Zealand rabbits ( 0.31 to 5 mg/kg or 0.4 to 6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 body surface area basis). There were no teratogenic effects in offspring of rats or rabbits given 0.4 to 6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 body surface area basis. In three reproductive studies in rats (two Segment III and a multigenerational study), there was an increase in pup deaths during the first 4 days of lactation at doses of 0.16-5 mg/kg or 0.1 to 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 body surface area basis. It is not known whether these deaths were due to a direct effect on the fetuses or pups or to effects on the dams.

There was no no-effect dose for increased rat pup mortality. In one Segment III study, there was an increase in stillborn rat pups at a dose of 2.5mg/kg or 1.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 body surface area basis. In a cross-fostering study in Wistar rats, toxic effects on the fetus or pups were observed, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of live pups and an increase in the number of dead pups at birth (Day 0), and a decrease in birth weight in pups of drug-treated dams. In addition, there was an increase in deaths by Day 1 among pups of drug-treated dams, regardless of whether or not the pups were cross- fostered. Risperidone also appeared to impair maternal behavior in that pup body weight gain and survival (from Day 1 to 4 of lactation) were reduced in pups born to control but reared by drug treated dams.These effects were all noted at the one dose of risperidone tested, i.e., 5mg/kg or 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 body surface area basis.

Placental transfer of risperidone occurs in rat pups.

Labor and Delivery

The effect of risperidone on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.

Nursing Mothers

Risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone are present in human breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from risperidone, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Approved Pediatric Indications

Schizophrenia

The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia were demonstrated in 417 adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years, in two short-term (6 and 8 weeks, respectively) double-blind controlled trials [see Indications and Usage (1.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Additional safety and efficacy information was also assessed in one long-term (6-month) open-label extension study in 284 of these adolescent patients with schizophrenia.

Safety and effectiveness of risperidone in children less than 13 years of age with schizophrenia have not been established.

Bipolar I Disorder

The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in 169 children and adolescent patients, aged 10 to 17 years, were demonstrated in one double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-week trial [see Indications and Usage (1.2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Safety and effectiveness of risperidone in children less than 10 years of age with bipolar disorder have not been established.

Autistic Disorder

The efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder were established in two 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in 156 children and adolescent patients, aged 5 to 16 years [see Indications and Usage (1.3), Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.4)]. Additional safety information was also assessed in a long-term study in patients with autistic disorder, or in short- and long-term studies in more than 1200 pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania who were of similar age and weight, and who received similar dosages of risperidone as patients treated for irritability associated with autistic disorder.

A third study was a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed dose study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a lower than recommended dose of risperidone in subjects 5 to 17 years of age with autistic disorder and associated irritability, and related behavioral symptoms. There were two weight-based, fixed doses of risperidone (high-dose and low-dose). The high dose was 1.25 mg per day for patients weighing 20 to <45 kg, and it was 1.75 mg per day for patients weighing ≥45kg. The low dose was 0.125 mg per day for patients weighing 20 to <45kg, and it was 0.175 mg per day for patients weighing ≥45kg. The study demonstrated the efficacy of high-dose risperidone, but it did not demonstrate efficacy for low-dose risperidone.

Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients

Tardive Dyskinesia

In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents treated with risperidone, 2 (0.1%) patients were reported to have tardive dyskinesia, which resolved on discontinuation of risperidone treatment [see also Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Weight Gain

Weight gain has been observed in children and adolescents during treatment with risperidone. Clinical monitoring of weight is recommended during treatment.

Data derive from short-term placebo-controlled trials and longer-term uncontrolled studies in pediatric patients (ages 5 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autistic disorder, or other psychiatric disorders. In the short-term trials (3 to 8 weeks), the mean weight gain for risperidone-treated patients was 2 kg, compared to 0.6 kg for placebo-treated patients. In these trials, approximately 33% of the risperidone group had weight gain ≥7%, compared to 7% in the placebo group. In longer-term, uncontrolled, open-label pediatric studies, the mean weight gain was 5.5 kg at Week 24 and 8 kg at Week 48 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Somnolence

Somnolence was frequently observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials of pediatric patients with autistic disorder. Most cases were mild or moderate in severity. These events were most often of early onset with peak incidence occurring during the first two weeks of treatment, and transient with a median duration of 16 days. Somnolence was the most commonly observed adverse reaction in the clinical trial of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, as well as in the schizophrenia trials in adolescents. As was seen in the autistic disorder trials, these adverse reactions were most often of early onset and transient in duration. [See Adverse Reactions (6.1) and 6.2)]. Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a change in dosing regimen [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2 and 2.3)].

Hyperprolactinemia

Risperidone has been shown to elevate prolactin levels in children and adolescents as well as in adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of up to 8 weeks duration in children and adolescents (aged 5 to 17 years) with autistic disorder or psychiatric disorders other than autistic disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania, 49% of patients who received risperidone had elevated prolactin levels compared to 2% of patients who received placebo. Similarly, in placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years) with bipolar disorder, or adolescents (aged 13 to 17 years) with schizophrenia, 82 to 87% of patients who received risperidone had elevated levels of prolactin compared to 3 to 7% of patients on placebo. Increases were dose-dependent and generally greater in females than in males across indications.

In clinical trials in 1885 children and adolescents, galactorrhea was reported in 0.8% of risperidone-treated patients and gynecomastia was reported in 2.3% of risperidone-treated patients.

Growth and Sexual Maturation

The long-term effects of risperidone on growth and sexual maturation have not been fully evaluated in children and adolescents.

Juvenile Animal Studies

Juvenile dogs were treated for 40 weeks with oral risperidone doses of 0.31, 1.25, or 5 mg/kg/day. Decreased bone length and density were seen, with a no-effect dose of 0.31 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) which were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 6 mg/day. In addition, a delay in sexual maturation was seen at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period.

In a study in which juvenile rats were treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age, a reversible impairment of performance in a test of learning and memory was seen, in females only, with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus paliperidone about half those observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest testable dose (1.25 mg/kg/day). This dose produced plasma levels (AUC) of risperidone plus paliperidone which were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether or not they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, a lower starting dose is recommended for an elderly patient, reflecting a decreased pharmacokinetic clearance in the elderly, as well as a greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.4, 2.5)]. While elderly patients exhibit a greater tendency to orthostatic hypotension, its risk in the elderly may be minimized by limiting the initial dose to 0.5 mg twice daily followed by careful titration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Monitoring of orthostatic vital signs should be considered in patients for whom this is of concern.

This drug is substantially excreted by the kidneys, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

Renal Impairment

In patients with moderate to severe (CLcr 59 to 15mL/min) renal disease, clearance of the sum of risperidone and its active metabolite decreased by 60%, compared to young healthy subjects. Risperidone doses should be reduced in patients with renal disease [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

Hepatic Impairment

While the pharmacokinetics of risperidone in subjects with liver disease were comparable to those in young healthy subjects, the mean free fraction of risperidone in plasma was increased by about 35% because of the diminished concentration of both albumin and α1 - acid glycoprotein. Risperidone doses should be reduced in patients with liver disease [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

Patients with Parkinson’s Disease or Lewy Body Dementia

Patients with Parkinson’s Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies can experience increased sensitivity to risperidone. Manifestations can include confusion, obtundation, postural instability with frequent falls, extrapyramidal symptoms, and clinical features consistent with neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenicity studies were conducted in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats. Risperidone was administered in the diet at doses of 0.63 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg for 18 months to mice and for 25 months to rats. These doses are equivalent to approximately 2, 9, and 38 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for schizophrenia of (16 mg/day) on a mg/kg basis or 0.2, 0.75, and 3 times the MRHD (mice) or 0.4, 1.5, and 6 times the MRHD (rats) on a mg/m 2 body surface area basis. A maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in male mice. There were statistically significant increases in pituitary gland adenomas, endocrine pancreas adenomas, and mammary gland adenocarcinomas. The table below summarizes the multiples of the human dose on a mg/m2 (mg/kg) basis at which these tumors occurred.

   

Multiples of Maximum Human Dose in mg/m2 (mg/kg)

 

Tumor Type

 

Species

 

Sex

 

Lowest Effect Level

 

Highest No-Effect Level

 

Pituitary adenomas

 

mouse

 

female

 

0.75 (9.4)

 

0.2 (2.4)

 

Endocrine pancreas adenomas

 

rat

 

male

 

1.5 (9.4)

 

0.4 (2.4)

 

Mammary gland adenocarcinomas

 

mouse

rat

rat

 

female

female

male

 

0.2 (2.4)

0.4 (2.4)

6.0 (37.5)

 

none

none

1.5 (9.4)

 

Mammary gland neoplasm, Total

 

rat

 

male

 

1.5 (9.4)

 

0.4 (2.4)

Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to chronically elevate prolactin levels in rodents. Serum prolactin levels were not measured during the risperidone carcinogenicity studies; however, measurements during subchronic toxicity studies showed that risperidone elevated serum prolactin levels 5 to 6 fold in mice and rats at the same doses used in the carcinogenicity studies. An increase in mammary, pituitary, and endocrine pancreas neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of other antipsychotic drugs and is considered to be prolactin-mediated. The relevance for human risk of the findings of prolactin-mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Mutagenesis

No evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic potential for risperidone was found in the Ames gene mutation test, the mouse lymphoma assay, the in vitro rat hepatocyte DNA-repair assay, the in vivo micronucleus test in mice, the sex-linked recessive lethal test in Drosophila, or the chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Impairment of Fertility

Risperidone (0.16 to 5 mg/kg) was shown to impair mating, but not fertility, in Wistar rats in three reproductive studies (two Segment I and a multigenerational study) at doses 0.1 to 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m 2 basis. The effect appeared to be in females, since impaired mating behavior was not noted in the Segment I study in which males only were treated. In a subchronic study in Beagle dogs in which risperidone was administered orally at doses of 0.31 to 5 mg/kg, sperm motility and concentration were decreased at doses 0.6 to 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 body surface area basis. Dose-related decreases were also noted in serum testosterone at the same doses. Serum testosterone and sperm parameters partially recovered, but remained decreased after treatment was discontinued. A no-effect dose could not be determined in either rat or dog.

Animal Toxicology

Juvenile dogs were treated for 40 weeks with oral risperidone doses of 0.31, 1.25 or 5 mg/kg/day.Decreased bone length and density were observed with a no-effect dose of 0.31 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma AUC levels of risperidone plus its active metabolite paliperidone (9-hydroxy-risperidone) which were similar to those in children and adolescents receiving the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 6 mg/day. In addition, a delay in sexual maturation was seen at all doses in both males and females. The above effects showed little or no reversibility in females after a 12 week drug-free recovery period.

In a study in which juvenile rats were treated with oral risperidone from days 12 to 50 of age, a reversible impairment of performance in a test of learning and memory was observed in females only with a no-effect dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma AUC levels of risperidone plus paliperidone about half those observed in humans at the MRHD. No other consistent effects on neurobehavioral or reproductive development were seen up to the highest testable dose of 1.25 mg/kg/day. This dose produced plasma AUC levels of risperidone plus paliperidone which were about two thirds of those observed in humans at the MRHD.

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