Metoprolol Tartrate Injection
Name: Metoprolol Tartrate Injection
- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection injection
- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection 5 mg
- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection 800 mg
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- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection usual dose
- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection oral dose
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- Metoprolol Tartrate Injection adverse effects
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Metoprolol Tartrate Injection Description
Metoprolol Tartrate Injection, USP is a sterile solution containing metoprolol tartrate, a selective beta1-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, available in 5 mL ampuls and 5 mL Carpuject™ sterile cartridge units, for intravenous administration. Each ampul and Carpuject™ sterile cartridge unit, contains a sterile solution of metoprolol tartrate USP, 5 mg and sodium chloride USP, 45 mg. Metoprolol tartrate is (±)-1-(isopropylamino)-3-[p-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]-2-propanol (2:1) dextro-tartrate salt, and its structural formula is:
Metoprolol tartrate USP is a white, practically odorless, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 684.83. Its molecular formula is (C15H25NO3)2 • C4H6O6. It is very soluble in water; freely soluble in methylene chloride, in chloroform, and in alcohol; slightly soluble in acetone; and insoluble in ether.
Risk of Anaphylactic Reactions
While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.
Information for Patients
Advise patients (1) to avoid operating automobiles and machinery or engaging in other tasks requiring alertness until the patient's response to therapy with metoprolol tartrate has been determined; (2) to contact the physician if any difficulty in breathing occurs; (3) to inform the physician or dentist before any type of surgery that he or she is taking metoprolol tartrate.
Catecholamine-depleting drugs: Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents or monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Observe patients treated with metoprolol tartrate plus a catecholamine depletor for evidence of hypotension or marked bradycardia, which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. In addition, possibly significant hypertension may theoretically occur up to 14 days following discontinuation of the concomitant administration with an irreversible MAO inhibitor.
Digitalis glycosides and beta blockers: Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. Monitor heart rate and PR interval.
Calcium channel blockers: Concomitant administration of a beta-adrenergic antagonist with a calcium channel blocker may produce an additive reduction in myocardial contractility because of negative chronotropic and inotropic effects.
Some inhalation anesthetics may enhance the cardiodepressant effect of beta-blockers (see WARNINGS, Major Surgery).
Potent inhibitors of the CYP2D6 enzyme may increase the plasma concentration of metoprolol tartrate which would mimic the pharmacokinetics of CYP2D6 poor metabolizer (see Pharmacokinetics section). Increase in plasma concentrations of metoprolol would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol. Known clinically significant potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 are antidepressants such as fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, bupropion, clomipramine, and desipramine; antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, and thioridazine; antiarrhythmics such as quinidine or propafenone; antiretrovirals such as ritonavir; antihistamines such as diphenhydramine; antimalarials such as hydroxychloroquine or quinidine; antifungals such as terbinafine.
Hydralazine: Concomitant administration of hydralazine may inhibit presystemic metabolism of metoprolol leading to increased concentrations of metoprolol.
Alpha-adrenergic agents: Antihypertensive effect of alpha-adrenergic blockers such as guanethidine, betanidine, reserpine, alpha-methyldopa or clonidine may be potentiated by beta-blockers including methoprolol tartrate. Beta-adrenergic blockers may also potentiate the postural hypotensive effect of the first dose of prazosin, probably by preventing reflex tachycardia. On the contrary, beta adrenergic blockers may also potentiate the hypertensive response to withdrawal of clonidine in patients receiving concomitant clonidine and beta-adrenergic blocker. If a patient is treated with clonidine and metoprolol tartrate concurrently, and clonidine treatment is to be discontinued, stop metoprolol tartrate several days before clonidine is withdrawn. Rebound hypertension that can follow withdrawal of clonidine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent beta-blocker treatment.
Ergot alkaloid: Concomitant administration with beta-blockers may enhance the vasoconstrictive action of ergot alkaloids.
Dipyridamole: In general, administration of a beta-blocker should be withheld before dipyridamole testing, with careful monitoring of heart rate following the dipyridamole injection.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals have been conducted to evaluate carcinogenic potential. In a 2-year study in rats at three oral dosage levels of up to 800 mg/kg per day, there was no increase in the development of spontaneously occurring benign or malignant neoplasms of any type. The only histologic changes that appeared to be drug related were an increased incidence of generally mild focal accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and a slight increase in biliary hyperplasia. In a 21-month study in Swiss albino mice at three oral dosage levels of up to 750 mg/kg per day, benign lung tumors (small adenomas) occurred more frequently in female mice receiving the highest dose than in untreated control animals. There was no increase in malignant or total (benign plus malignant) lung tumors, or in the overall incidence of tumors or malignant tumors. This 21-month study was repeated in CD-1 mice, and no statistically or biologically significant differences were observed between treated and control mice of either sex for any type of tumor.
All mutagenicity tests performed (a dominant lethal study in mice, chromosome studies in somatic cells, a Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test, and a nucleus anomaly test in somatic interphase nuclei) were negative.
Reproduction toxicity studies in mice, rats and rabbits did not indicate teratogenic potential for metoprolol tartrate. Embryotoxicity and/or fetotoxicity in rats and rabbits were noted starting at doses of 50 mg/kg in rats and 25 mg/kg in rabbits, as demonstrated by increases in preimplantation loss, decreases in the number of viable fetuses per dose, and/or decreases in neonatal survival. High doses were associated with some maternal toxicity, and growth delay of the offspring in utero, which was reflected in minimally lower weights at birth. The oral NOAELs for embryo-fetal development in mice, rats, and rabbits were considered to be 25, 200, and 12.5 mg/kg. This corresponds to dose levels that are approximately 0.3, 4, and 0.5 times, respectively, when based on surface area, the maximum human oral dose (8 mg/kg/day) of metoprolol tartrate. Metoprolol tartrate has been associated with reversible adverse effects on spermatogenesis starting at oral dose levels of 3.5 mg/kg in rats (a dose that is only 0.1-times the human dose, when based on surface area), although other studies have shown no effect of metoprolol tartrate on reproductive performance in male rats.
Pregnancy Category C
Upon confirming the diagnosis of pregnancy, women should immediately inform the doctor.
Metoprolol tartrate has been shown to increase postimplantation loss and decrease neonatal survival in rats at doses up to 11 times the maximum daily human dose of 450 mg, when based on surface area. Distribution studies in mice confirm exposure of the fetus when metoprolol tartrate is administered to the pregnant animal. These limited animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to teratogenicity (see Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. The amount of data on the use of metoprolol in pregnant women is limited. The risk to the fetus/mother is unknown. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Metoprolol tartrate is excreted in breast milk in a very small quantity. An infant consuming 1 liter of breast milk daily would receive a dose of less than 1 mg of the drug.
The effects of metoprolol tartrate on the fertility of humans have not been studied.
Metoprolol tartrate showed effects on spermatogenesis in male rats at a therapeutic dose level, but had no effect on rates of conception at higher doses in animal fertility studies (see Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility).
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
In worldwide clinical trials of metoprolol tartrate in myocardial infarction, where approximately 478 patients were over 65 years of age (0 over 75 years of age), no age-related differences in safety and effectiveness were found. Other reported clinical experience in myocardial infarction has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. However, greater sensitivity of some elderly individuals taking metoprolol tartrate cannot be categorically ruled out. Therefore, in general, it is recommended that dosing proceed with caution in this population.
Several cases of overdosage have been reported, some leading to death.
Oral LD50's (mg/kg): mice, 1158 to 2460; rats, 3090 to 4670.
Signs and Symptoms
Potential signs and symptoms associated with overdosage with metoprolol tartrate are bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure and death.
There is no specific antidote.
In general, patients with acute or recent myocardial infarction may be more hemodynamically unstable than other patients and should be treated accordingly (see WARNINGS, Myocardial Infarction).
On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol tartrate, the following general measures should be employed.
Elimination of the Drug: Gastric lavage should be performed.
Other clinical manifestations of overdose should be managed symptomatically based on modern methods of intensive care.
Administer a vasopressor e.g., levarterenol or dopamine.
Administer a beta2-stimulating agent and/or a theophylline derivative.
Administer digitalis glycoside and diuretic. In shock resulting from inadequate cardiac contractility, consider administration of dobutamine, isoproterenol or glucagon.
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 5 mL Cartridge Label
5 mL Carpuject™
Sterile Cartridge Unit with Luer Lock
5 mg/5 mL (1 mg per mL)
FOR INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION
PROTECT FROM LIGHT
Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA