Methylphenidate CD Capsules

Name: Methylphenidate CD Capsules

Methylphenidate CD Capsules Description

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD) are a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. The extended-release capsules provide 30% of the dose by an immediate-release (IR) component and 70% of the dose by an extended-release (ER) component in a single bead type. Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are available in six strengths containing 10 mg (3 mg IR; 7 mg ER), 20 mg (6 mg IR; 14 mg ER), 30 mg (9 mg IR; 21 mg ER), 40 mg (12 mg IR; 28 mg ER), 50 mg (15 mg IR; 35 mg ER), or 60 mg (18 mg IR; 42 mg ER) of methylphenidate hydrochloride, USP for oral administration.

Chemically, methylphenidate hydrochloride, USP is methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride. Its structural formula is:

C14H19NO2•HCl M.W. 269.77

Methylphenidate hydrochloride, USP is a white to off-white powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone.

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) also contain the following inactive ingredients: cetyl alcohol, corn starch, D&C Yellow #10 aluminum lake, dibutyl sebacate, ethylcellulose, FD&C Blue #1 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue #2 aluminum lake, FD&C Red #40 aluminum lake, gelatin, hypromellose, iron oxide black, propylene glycol, shellac glaze, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, and titanium dioxide. Additionally, the 10 mg capsules contain D&C Yellow #10 and FD&C Green #3; the 20 mg capsules contain FD&C Blue #1; the 30 mg capsules contain iron oxide red and iron oxide yellow; the 40 mg capsules contain iron oxide red, and iron oxide yellow; the 50 mg capsules contain FD&C Blue #1.

Contraindications

Agitation

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are contraindicated in patients with marked anxiety, tension and agitation, since the drug may aggravate these symptoms.

Hypersensitivity to Methylphenidate or Other Excipients

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to methylphenidate or other components of the product.

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) contain sucrose. Therefore, patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption, or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency should not take this medicine.

Glaucoma

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are contraindicated in patients with glaucoma.

Tics

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are contraindicated in patients with motor tics or with a family history or diagnosis of Tourette’s syndrome (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are contraindicated during treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and also within a minimum of 14 days following discontinuation of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (hypertensive crises may result).

Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) are contraindicated in patients with severe hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis (see WARNINGS).

Halogenated Anesthetics

There is a risk of sudden blood pressure increase during surgery. If surgery is planned, methylphenidate capsules (CD) should not be taken on the day of the surgery.

Warnings

Serious Cardiovascular Events

Sudden Death and Preexisting Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart Problems

Children and adolescents

Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Adults

Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions

Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 to 4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3 to 6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with preexisting hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated With Stimulant Medications

Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.

Psychiatric Adverse Events

Preexisting Psychosis

Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a preexisting psychotic disorder.

Bipolar Illness

Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.

Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms

Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.

Aggression

Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behavior or hostility.

Long-Term Suppression of Growth

Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development. Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause a similar suppression of growth, however, it is anticipated that they likely have this effect as well. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.

Seizures

There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.

Priapism

Prolonged and painful erections, sometimes requiring surgical intervention, have been reported with methylphenidate products in both pediatric and adult patients. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention.

Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Stimulants, including methylphenidate capsules (CD), used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in postmarketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.

Visual Disturbance

Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.

Use in Children Under Six Years of Age

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) should not be used in children under six years, since safety and efficacy in this age group have not been established.

Drug Dependence

Methylphenidate capsules (CD) should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse. Careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use since severe depression may occur. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up.

Overdosage

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of acute methylphenidate overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the CNS and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, dryness of mucous membranes, and rhabdomyolysis.

Recommended Treatment

Treatment consists of appropriate supportive measures. The patient must be protected against self-injury and against external stimuli that would aggravate overstimulation already present. Gastric contents may be evacuated by gastric lavage as indicated. Before performing gastric lavage, control agitation and seizures if present and protect the airway. Other measures to detoxify the gut include administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic. Intensive care must be provided to maintain adequate circulation and respiratory exchange; external cooling procedures may be required for hyperpyrexia.

Efficacy of peritoneal dialysis or extracorporeal hemodialysis for methylphenidate capsule (CD) overdosage has not been established.

The prolonged release of methylphenidate from methylphenidate capsules (CD) should be considered when treating patients with overdose.

Poison Control Center

As with the management of all overdosage, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered. The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to-date information on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate.

How is Methylphenidate CD Capsules Supplied

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD) are available as follows:

10 mg: Hard gelatin capsule with a white opaque body and light green opaque cap, imprinted with “93” over “5295” on both the body and cap, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0093-5295-01).

20 mg: Hard gelatin capsule with a white opaque body and light turquoise blue opaque cap, imprinted with “93” over “5296” on both the body and cap, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0093-5296-01).

30 mg: Hard gelatin capsule with a white opaque body and light brown opaque cap, imprinted with “93” over “5297” on both the body and cap, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0093-5297-01).

40 mg: Hard gelatin capsule with a white opaque body and light brown opaque cap, imprinted with “93” over “5298” on both the body and cap, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0093-5298-01).

50 mg: Hard gelatin capsule with a white opaque body and light blue opaque cap, imprinted with “93” over “5292” on both the body and cap, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0093-5292-01).

60 mg: Hard gelatin capsule with a white opaque body and white opaque cap, imprinted with “93” over “5293” on both the body and cap, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0093-5293-01).

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Keep out of the reach of children.

Reference

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association 1994. 4th ed. Washington D.C.

For more information call 1-888-838-2872.

Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.

North Wales, PA 19454

Rev. O 2/2017

(web3)