Cyonanz

Name: Cyonanz

Combined oral contraceptives

The following product is a combined oral contraceptive containing the progestational compound norethindrone and the estrogenic compound ethinyl estradiol.

CyonanzTM Tablets

Each white to off-white tablet contains 0.5 mg of norethindrone USP and 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol USP. Inactive ingredients include anhydrous lactose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and pregelatinized starch (maize). Each green tablet contains only inert ingredients, as follows: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Blue No. 2 aluminum lake, ferric oxide yellow, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone.

The chemical name for norethindrone is 17-Hydroxy-19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, and for ethinyl estradiol is 19-Nor-17α-pregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3,17-diol. Their structural formulas are as follows:




Cyonanz - Clinical Pharmacology

Combined Oral Contraceptives

Combined oral contraceptives act by suppression of gonadotropins. Although the primary mechanism of this action is inhibition of ovulation, other alterations include changes in the cervical mucus (which increase the difficulty of sperm entry into the uterus) and the endometrium (which reduce the likelihood of implantation).

Indications and Usage for Cyonanz

CyonanzTM tablets are indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use this product as a method of contraception.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective. Table 1 lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combined oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, the IUD, and the NORPLANT® System depends upon the reliability with which they are used. Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates.



Table 1: Percentage of Women Experiencing an Unintended Pregnancy During the First Year of Typical Use and the First Year of Perfect Use of Contraception and the Percentage Continuing Use at the End of the First Year. United States.
Adapted from Hatcher et al, 1998, Ref. #1.
Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Treatment initiated within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse reduces the risk of pregnancy by at least 75%.§
Lactational Amenorrhea Method: LAM is a highly effective, temporary method of contraception. ¶
Source: Trussell J. Contraceptive efficacy. In Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Stewart F, Cates W, Stewart GK, Kowal D, Guest F. Contraceptive Technology: Seventeenth Revised Edition. New York, NY: Irvington Publishers, 1998.
* Among couples attempting to avoid pregnancy, the percentage who continue to use a method for one year.
† Among typical couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason.
‡ Among couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time) and who use it perfectly (both consistently and correctly), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason.
§ The treatment schedule is one dose within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, and a second dose 12 hours after the first dose. The Food and Drug Administration has declared the following brands of oral contraceptives to be safe and effective for emergency contraception: Ovral® (1 dose is 2 white pills), Alesse® (1 dose is 5 pink pills), Nordette® or Levlen® (1 dose is 2 light-orange pills), Lo/Ovral®(1 dose is 4 white pills), Triphasil® or Tri-Levlen® (1 dose is 4 yellow pills).
¶ However, to maintain effective protection against pregnancy, another method of contraception must be used as soon as menstruation resumes, the frequency or duration of breastfeeds is reduced, bottle feeds are introduced, or the baby reaches six months of age.
#  The percents becoming pregnant in columns (2) and (3) are based on data from populations where contraception is not used and from women who cease using contraception in order to become pregnant. Among such populations, about 89% become pregnant within one year. This estimate was lowered slightly (to 85%) to represent the percent who would become pregnant within one year among women now relying on reversible methods of contraception if they abandoned contraception altogether.
Þ  Foams, creams, gels, vaginal suppositories, and vaginal film.
ß Cervical mucus (ovulation) method supplemented by calendar in the pre-ovulatory and basal body temperature in the post-ovulatory phases.
à  With spermicidal cream or jelly.
è  Without spermicides.
% of Women Experiencing an
Unintended Pregnancy
within the First Year of Use
% of Women Continuing Use at One Year*
Method
(1)
Typical Use†
(2)
Perfect Use‡
(3)
(4)
Chance#  
85
85
SpermicidesÞ
26
6
40
Periodic abstinence
25
63
    Calendar
9
    Ovulation Method
3
    Sympto-Thermalß  
2
    Post-Ovulation
1
Capà  
    Parous Women
40
26
42
    Nulliparous Women
20
9
56
Sponge
    Parous Women
40
20
42
    Nulliparous Women
20
9
56
Diaphragmà  
20
6
56
Withdrawal
19
4
Condomè  
Female (Reality®)
21
5
56
Male
14
3
61
Pill
5
71
    Progestin Only
0.5
    Combined
0.1
IUD
    Progesterone T
2
1.5
81
    Copper T380A
0.8
0.6
78
    LNg 20
0.1
0.1
81
Depo-Provera®
0.3
0.3
70
Norplant® and Norplant-2®
0.05
0.05
88
Female Sterilization
0.5
0.5
100
Male Sterilization
0.15
0.1
100

CyonanzTM has not been studied for and are not indicated for use in emergency contraception.

Precautions

1.  General

Patients should be counseled that this product does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

2.  Physical Examination and Follow-Up

It is good medical practice for all women to have annual history and physical examinations, including women using oral contraceptives. The physical examination, however, may be deferred until after initiation of oral contraceptives if requested by the woman and judged appropriate by the clinician. The physical examination should include special reference to blood pressure, breasts, abdomen and pelvic organs, including cervical cytology, and relevant laboratory tests. In case of undiagnosed, persistent or recurrent abnormal vaginal bleeding, appropriate measures should be conducted to rule out malignancy. Women with a strong family history of breast cancer or who have breast nodules should be monitored with particular care.

3.  Lipid Disorders

Women who are being treated for hyperlipidemias should be followed closely if they elect to use oral contraceptives. Some progestogens may elevate LDL levels and may render the control of hyperlipidemias more difficult.

4.  Liver Function

If jaundice develops in any woman receiving such drugs, the medication should be discontinued. Steroid hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function.

5.  Fluid Retention

Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful monitoring, in patients with conditions which might be aggravated by fluid retention.

6.  Emotional Disorders

Women with a history of depression should be carefully observed and the drug discontinued if depression recurs to a serious degree.

7.  Contact Lenses

Contact lens wearers who develop visual changes or changes in lens tolerance should be assessed by an ophthalmologist.

8.  Drug Interactions

Consult the labeling of concurrently-used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with hormonal contraceptives or the potential for enzyme alterations.

Effects of Other Drugs on Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

Substances decreasing the plasma concentrations of COCs and potentially diminishing the efficacy of COCs

Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), may decrease the plasma concentrations of COCs and potentially diminish the effectiveness of CHCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, bosentan, felbamate, griseofulvin, oxcarbazepine, rifampicin, topiramate, rifabutin, rufinamide, aprepitant, and products containing St. John’s wort. Interactions between hormonal contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. Counsel women to use an alternative method of contraception or a back-up method when enzyme inducers are used with CHCs, and to continue back-up contraception for 28 days after discontinuing the enzyme inducer to ensure contraceptive reliability.

Substances increasing the plasma concentrations of COCs

Co-administration of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin and certain COCs containing EE increase AUC values for EE by approximately 20 to 25%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma EE concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, grapefruit juice, or ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone concentrations.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Significant changes (increase or decrease) in the plasma concentrations of estrogen and/or progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with HIV protease inhibitors (decrease [e.g., nelfinavir, ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, (fos)amprenavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and tipranavir/ritonavir] or increase [e.g., indinavir and atazanavir/ritonavir]) /HCV protease inhibitors (decrease [e.g., boceprevir and telaprevir]) or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (decrease [e.g., nevirapine] or increase [e.g., etravirine]).

Colesevelam: Colesevelam, a bile acid sequestrant, given together with a combination oral hormonal contraceptive, has been shown to significantly decrease the AUC of EE. A drug interaction between the contraceptive and colesevelam was decreased when the two drug products were given 4 hours apart.

Effects of Combined Hormonal Contraceptives on Other Drugs

COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds (e.g., cyclosporine, prednisolone, theophylline, tizanidine, and voriconazole) and increase their plasma concentrations. COCs have been shown to decrease plasma concentrations of acetaminophen, clofibric acid, morphine, salicylic acid, temazepam and lamotrigine. Significant decrease in plasma concentration of lamotrigine has been shown, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary.

Women on thyroid hormone replacement therapy may need increased doses of thyroid hormone because serum concentrations of thyroid-binding globulin increases with use of COCs.

9.  Interactions with Laboratory Tests

Certain endocrine and liver function tests and blood components may be affected by oral contraceptives:


a.  Increased prothrombin and factors VII, VIII, IX, and X; decreased antithrombin 3; increased norepinephrine-induced platelet aggregability.
b.  Increased thyroid binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 by column or by radioimmunoassay. Free T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG, free T4 concentration is unaltered.
c.  Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum.
d.  Sex-binding globulins are increased and result in elevated levels of total circulating sex steroids and corticoids; however, free or biologically active levels remain unchanged.
e.  Triglycerides may be increased and levels of various other lipids and lipoproteins may be affected.
f.   Glucose tolerance may be decreased.
g.  Serum folate levels may be depressed by oral contraceptive therapy. This may be of clinical significance if a woman becomes pregnant shortly after discontinuing oral contraceptives.


10.  Carcinogenesis

See WARNINGS.

11.  Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category X. See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS.

12. Nursing Mothers

Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers and a few adverse effects on the child have been reported, including jaundice and breast enlargement. In addition, combined oral contraceptives given in the postpartum period may interfere with lactation by decreasing the quantity and quality of breast milk. If possible, the nursing mother should be advised not to use combined oral contraceptives but to use other forms of contraception until she has completely weaned her child.

13. Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of CyonanzTM Tablets have been established in women of reproductive age. Safety and efficacy are expected to be the same for postpubertal adolescents under the age of 16 and for users 16 years and older. Use of this product before menarche is not indicated.

14. Geriatric Use

This product has not been studied in women over 65 years of age and is not indicated in this population.

INFORMATION FOR THE PATIENT

See Patient Labeling printed below.

Adverse Reactions

An increased risk of the following serious adverse reactions has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives (See WARNINGS). 


  • Thrombophlebitis and venous thrombosis with or without embolism
  • Arterial thromboembolism
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Cerebral thrombosis
  • Hypertension
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Hepatic adenomas or benign liver tumors

There is evidence of an association between the following conditions and the use of oral contraceptives:


  • Mesenteric thrombosis
  • Retinal thrombosis

The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug-related:


  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms (such as abdominal cramps and bloating)
  • Breakthrough bleeding
  • Spotting
  • Change in menstrual flow
  • Amenorrhea
  • Temporary infertility after discontinuation of treatment
  • Edema
  • Melasma which may persist
  • Breast changes: tenderness, enlargement, secretion
  • Change in weight (increase or decrease)
  • Change in cervical erosion and secretion
  • Diminution in lactation when given immediately postpartum
  • Cholestatic jaundice
  • Migraine
  • Allergic reaction, including rash, urticaria, angioedema
  • Mental depression
  • Reduced tolerance to carbohydrates
  • Vaginal candidiasis
  • Change in corneal curvature (steepening)
  • Intolerance to contact lenses

The following adverse reactions have been reported in users of oral contraceptives and a causal association has been neither confirmed nor refuted:


  • Pre-menstrual syndrome
  • Cataracts
  • Changes in appetite
  • Cystitis-like syndrome
  • Headache
  • Nervousness
  • Dizziness
  • Hirsutism
  • Loss of scalp hair
  • Erythema multiforme
  • Erythema nodosum
  • Hemorrhagic eruption
  • Vaginitis
  • Porphyria
  • Impaired renal function
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Acne
  • Changes in libido
  • Colitis
  • Budd-Chiari Syndrome


The following adverse reactions were also reported in clinical trials or during post-marketing experience: Gastrointestinal Disorders: diarrhea, pancreatitis; Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: muscle spasms, back pain; Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: vulvovaginal pruritus, pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, vulvovaginal dryness; Psychiatric Disorders: anxiety, mood swings, mood altered; Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: pruritus, photosensitivity reaction; General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: edema peripheral, fatigue, irritability, asthenia, malaise; Neoplasms Benign, Malignant, and Unspecified (Including Cysts and Polyps): breast cancer, breast mass, breast neoplasm, cervix carcinoma; Immune System Disorders: anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction; Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatitis, cholelithiasis.

How is Cyonanz Supplied

CyonanzTM (Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, USP) 0.5 mg/0.035 mg are available in a blister pack containing 28 tablets, as follows: 21 white to off-white, round, flat-faced beveled edged tablets, debossed with ‘S’ on one side and ‘31’ on other side of the tablet (0.5 mg norethindrone  USP and 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol USP) and 7 green, round, mottled, flat-faced, beveled-edge uncoated tablets, debossed with “S” on one side and “37” on other side containing inert ingredients.

The blister packs are available in the following package:

  • The Blister Packs are packed in Pouches (NDC 65862-899-28) and the pouches are packaged in cartons

                Carton of 6 Pouches                           NDC 65862-899-92

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

References


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For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to ethinyl estradiol / norethindrone: oral capsule, oral tablet, oral tablet chewable

General

A number of studies have suggested that use of oral contraceptives decreases the risk of ovarian cancer. Specifically, the risk of epithelial ovarian cancers is decreased by 40%. The protection against ovarian cancer may last for 10 to 15 years after discontinuation of oral contraceptives. After long term use (12 years), the risk of ovarian cancer is decreased by as much as 80%.

The risk of endometrial cancer is decreased by approximately 50%. Protection may last for 15 years after discontinuation and may be greatest for nulliparous women who may be at higher risk for endometrial carcinoma than other women.

The incidence of hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease is approximately 50% lower in women taking oral contraceptives. The reason for the decrease in the frequency (or severity) of pelvic inflammatory disease in women taking oral contraceptives has not been fully elucidated.

Some recent studies have suggested that the decrease in frequency of functional ovarian cysts reported with some older formulations may not occur in women taking newer low dose formulations.

One recent study (The Nurses' Health Study) has suggested that long term use of oral contraceptives is safe and does not adversely affect long term risk for mortality.[Ref]

Women taking oral contraceptive combinations may have experienced several non-contraceptive health benefits. These benefits include protection against two malignant neoplasms (endometrial carcinoma and ovarian cancer). In addition, use of oral contraceptive combinations has reportedly decreased the frequency of benign breast tumors, decreased the risk of ovarian cysts, decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy, increased menstrual regularity, decreased the incidence of iron deficiency anemia, decreased the incidence of dysmenorrhea, and decreased the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal side effects have included nausea, which occurred in approximately 10% of treated women and was more frequent during the first cycles of therapy. Some early reports suggested an association between oral contraceptive use and gallbladder disease.[Ref]

Cases of oral contraceptive-induced esophageal ulceration and geographic tongue have been reported rarely.

More recent studies have suggested that the risk of gallbladder disease is minimal.[Ref]

Oncologic

Oncologic side effects have included reports of increased risk of invasive breast cancer. A large study (n = 16,608 postmenopausal women) of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone was terminated in 2002 due to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. A number of studies have examined a possible relationship between the use of oral contraceptives and the development of breast cancer. Many of the studies have reported conflicting results. A committee of the World Health Organization evaluated these studies and the risks of breast cancer and concluded that: "Numerous studies have found no overall association between oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer." In addition, the same committee also examined a possible relationship between oral contraceptive use and neoplasms of the uterine cervix and concluded that: "There are insufficient data to draw any firm conclusions regarding the effects of combined oral contraceptives on the risk of cervical adenocarcinoma."[Ref]

The World Health Organization committee also noted that some studies "have found a weak association between long-term use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 36, and perhaps up to the age 45....It is unclear whether this observed association is attributable to bias, the development of new cases of cancer, or accelerated growth of existing cancers."

The World Health Organization committee further concluded that there is no increased risk of breast cancer in women over the age of 45 who have previously taken oral contraceptives. In addition, studies suggest that use of oral contraceptives does not place specific groups of women (like those with a family history of breast cancer) at higher or lower risk, and variations in the hormonal content of oral contraceptives do not influence the risk of breast cancer.

In general, studies evaluating the potential risk of cervical cancer in patients taking oral contraceptives have been complicated by the large number of confounding factors which make investigations into the epidemiology of this neoplasm difficult. Some studies have suggested that women taking oral contraceptives are at increased risk of dysplasia, epidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the cervix. However, other studies have not found such an association.[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Detailed information concerning the effects of oral contraceptive therapy on lipid metabolism is available in the Endocrine paragraph of this side effect monograph.

Some early investigations of women taking high dose estrogen combinations (50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent daily) suggested that such women may be at increased risk of cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular thrombosis, including venous thromboembolism). However, more recent large investigations of women taking low dose estrogen combinations have suggested that oral contraceptive use is not associated with an increased risk of serious cardiovascular complications in healthy non smoking women up to the age of 45. (For women aged 35 to 44 who smoke or who have preexisting systemic diseases that may affect the cardiovascular system, use of oral contraceptives is not recommended.)

However, some investigators have suggested that even the new low dose products may result in adverse effects on lipid metabolism and should prompt careful review of a woman's cardiovascular risk factors before a decision to use oral contraceptive combinations is made.

The frequency of both subarachnoid hemorrhage and thrombotic stroke has been reported by some investigators to be higher in women taking oral contraceptive hormones. However, other investigators have suggested that the risk of these effects for women using newer low dose formulations are very small for young women without underlying cardiovascular disease or other risk factors.[Ref]

Cardiovascular side effects have included reports of increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. A large study (n = 16,608 postmenopausal women) of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone was terminated in 2002 due to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. Earlier studies had suggested that unopposed estrogen therapy may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by as much as 35% and that combination therapy with a progestin may also decrease coronary risk. Cardiovascular side effects of the estrogen component of this combination have also included reports of hypertension. However, significant blood pressure increases generally occur only in women receiving high-dose estrogen products (50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent daily). Estrogens have also been associated with edema. In addition, exogenous estrogens may exert cardioprotective effects by causing favorable changes in lipid profiles. These beneficial effects, however, may be partially or completely offset by alterations in lipid profiles induced by exogenous progestins.[Ref]

Endocrine

Endocrine side effects have included reports of complex alterations in plasma lipid profiles and carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, oral contraceptive use has been reported to cause conception delay.[Ref]

All the progestins which occur in commercially available oral contraceptive combinations have adverse effects on lipid profiles. Specifically, these progestins exert antiestrogen and androgen effects and decrease HDL (and HDL2) cholesterol levels and increase LDL cholesterol levels. However, the estrogens in oral contraceptive combinations exert opposing effects. Consequently, alterations in lipid profiles are related to the relative amount and potency of the specific estrogen and progestin in a given product. (Norethindrone exerts a moderate androgen effect and weak progestin and antiestrogen effects.)

A number of investigations have suggested that oral contraceptive combinations may decrease glucose tolerance. However, some recent studies with low dose preparations have suggested that decreases in glucose tolerance due to oral contraceptive combinations are generally minimal.

Despite the potentially adverse effects of oral contraceptives on lipid levels and glucose tolerance, some investigators have suggested that young diabetic women without existing vascular disease or severe lipidemias may be candidates for low dose oral contraceptive combinations provided that they receive close monitoring for adverse metabolic effects.[Ref]

Hepatic

Hepatic side effects have included focal nodular hyperplasia, intrahepatic cholestasis, liver cell adenomas, hepatic granulomas, hepatic hemangiomas and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas, which have been reported rarely in association with estrogen therapy and therapy with oral contraceptive combinations.[Ref]

The rate of death due to hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has not changed during the last 25 years (a time during which use of oral contraceptive hormones has increased dramatically).

A committee of the World Health Organization has reported that in developing countries where hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma are common, "short term use of oral contraceptives does not appear to be associated with an increased risk. Data on the effects of long term use are scarce."

A recent Italian case-control study of women with hepatocellular carcinoma has suggested that the relative risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is 2.2 for oral contraceptive users compared to women who never used oral contraceptives.

A similar American case-control study from 1989 also reported a strong association between oral contraceptive use and hepatocellular carcinoma but concluded that: "If this observed association is causal, the actual number of cases of liver cancer in the United States attributable to oral contraceptive use is small. Therefore, these findings do not have public health importance in the United States and other Western nations."[Ref]

Hematologic

Cases of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (sometimes fatal), and arterial thrombosis have been reported rarely.

Previous thrombotic disease is considered a contraindication to use of oral contraceptive combinations.[Ref]

Hematologic side effects have included the risk of thromboembolism that is associated with the use of exogenous estrogens. However, because the dose of exogenous estrogens is low in most commercially available preparations, the risk of thromboembolism is minimal for most women (except women who are over age 35 and smoke and women with a history of previous thrombotic diseases).[Ref]

Genitourinary

Genitourinary side effects have commonly included breakthrough bleeding and spotting, especially during the first several cycles of oral contraceptive use. Non-hormonal causes of such bleeding should be excluded. Additional side effects reported with estrogen and/or progestin therapy include changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow, increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, vaginal candidiasis, change in amount of cervical secretion, change in cervical ectropion, ovarian cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer and vaginitis.[Ref]

Some women experience oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea following termination or oral contraceptive use.[Ref]

Psychiatric

Psychiatric side effects have included depression and precipitation of panic disorder.[Ref]

Immunologic

Immunologic side effects have included rare cases of oral contraceptive-induced systemic lupus erythematosus.[Ref]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects have included chorea, which has been reported once in association with oral contraceptives.[Ref]

Ocular

Ocular side effects have included rare cases of retinal thrombosis. In addition, the manufacturers of oral contraceptive products report that some patients develop changes in contact lens tolerance.[Ref]

Respiratory

Respiratory side effects have included reports of increased risk of pulmonary embolism. A large study (n = 16,608 postmenopausal women) of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone was terminated in 2002 due to the increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism.[Ref]

A case of fatal pulmonary venooclusive disease has been associated with oral contraceptive therapy.[Ref]

Some side effects of Cyonanz may not be reported. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice. You may also report side effects to the FDA.

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